Nov 26, 2015 1507 Words  Pages

Executive summary
Electrical vehicles technology has been present for a while and is a proven technology that need only reshaping to meet the global need. Though, in the past, the technology had failed to compete with the internal combustion engine due to initial cost, the technology has done well in the past few years. Electric vehicle ability to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon and carbon dioxide and the advantages it enjoys such as low maintenance and running cost can enhance it market competitiveness. However, as experts try to make its charging system more efficient and its ability to store charge more long lasting, the global need continue to rise. The research proposal, therefore, aim at addressing an issue like government involvement can enhance improved use of EV, development of better EV batteries, energy management system and fast charging can help enhance the use of Electrical Vehicles and how electric vehicle drive train and the battery can be redesigned to make it affordable.

The transport sector is one of the main global consumers of fossil fuel related energy in the world. Unfortunately fossil fuel is non-renewable source of energy and the production of oil has been fluctuating in the recent past. At the same time, combustion of petroleum related fuel release greenhouse gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide that destroy the ozone layer and result to further environmental degradation. Therefore to work toward sustainability and reliability in the energy sector, we need technologies that help us reduce such toxic emission, eliminate bad weather pattern triggered by global warming and trigger use clean technology like Electrical Controlled Vehicles. Economically petroleum fuel prices have escalated in the past hence use of the electrical controlled vehicle is a great alternative to manage the cost issues. Therefore, the research proposal focuses on Electrical Vehicle technology.
• To understand how government involvement can enhance improved use of EV.
• To analyse how development of a better EV batteries, energy management system and fast charging can help enhance the use of Electrical Vehicles
• To investigate how electric vehicle drive train and battery can be redesigned to make it affordable.
The world is at a strange position having misused resources in the past. The quick awakening was a result of the realization that pollution was affecting the ozone layer and destroying its ability to protect mankind. Emission of green house gases was common and no regulation had been enacted. However as we grew wiser and learnt the effect of our lifestyle, the world realized the need to reduce green house gas emission and at the same time protect energy sources that are non renewable. Therefore the period when the cost of fuel rises due to demand and instability in the east and the inability of fossil fuel to produce clean energy drove the world to fight more to device more conservative way of drawing energy for transport system. Therefore to reduce green house gases emission, lower the cost of maintenance and reduction of operation cost are some of the basic reason for support of electrical cars.

Literature review
Literature review is aimed at analysis of the secondary data compiled from the past research done on electric vehicle. The report therefore focuses on areas like historical background of electrical vehicles, electrical vehicle technology, and comparison of electrical vehicle to internal combustion engine vehicles and finally the merits and demerits of owning an electric vehicle.
Historical Background
Need for a new technology to power the automobiles has been the centre of focus since around 1960’s. The aim of the initiated project was to find an alternative to the fossil fuel the world had grown over dependent to. Unfortunately according to (Argueta, 2010) internal combustion engine using fossil fuel has failed in area of exhaust emission and dependence on non renewable fossil fuel. Electrical vehicle technology has been around for over 100 years with the first known electrical vehicle concept being linked to Robert Anderson from Scotland after he created the world first crude electric carriage. Almost 50 years later after the work of Robert Anderson, L Ryker managed to build electric tricycle and William Morrison completed his six passenger wagon. Both completed their work in 1895 and the world took notice of Electrical Vehicle technology. Unfortunately in 1920 when the cost of gasoline dropped and the quality of road improved, the electrical vehicle demand dropped significantly. This was also because the mass production of internal combustion engine vehicle caused a significant difference in the cost of gasoline car compared to electrical car.
Fig 1: Some of the first electrical vehicles

Source ( 'Basics of Electric Vehicles ', 2013)
Electrical Vehicle Technology
According to electrical vehicle get the movement power from electric motor. The electrical motor that propels the electrical car is powered by a rechargeable battery system. Therefore the movement of the Electrical car depend on three key components namely electric motor, controller and rechargeable battery. According to (Argueta, 2010) the three main part works in series such that the electrical motor source power from controller and the controller source power from the rechargeable battery. Basically, once the battery provides power to operate the motor, the motor then uses the received power to rotate transmission which is the main drive that causes wheel movement.
Fig2: The four main parts of an electric vehicle

Source (Argueta, 2010)
The process is initiated when the driver step on the pedal and activates the potentiometer. The Electrical vehicle has double potentiometer for safety purposes and the signal relays to the controller how much power is required. Depending on the relayed information from the accelerator pedal, the potentiometer takes power from battery and transfer to the motor in regulated form. The motor therefore receive voltage from the controller and use it to rotate transmission. The transmission turn the wheel and that causes the vehicle to move either forward or backward. The voltage delivered according to (Argueta, 2010) depends on the intensity of the applied pedal force.
Comparison between Gasoline & Electrical vehicle
Electrical vehicle has many key differences when compared to the common gasoline propelled cars. In the external components, only the absence of exhaust pipe can be said to be the key difference. However, the internal system varies both in appearance and functionality. According to (Anair & Mahmassani, 2015) 70 percent of the components of Electric vehicle differ from the internal combustion vehicle but they serve the same purpose. As can be visually seen from the listed components in figure three below, electrical vehicle has only motor as the moving part while ICE vehicle has numerous moving parts. The few moving parts make electrical vehicle have fewer cases of maintenance need hence is said to be more reliable It doesn’t need frequent replacement of oil, filter, exhaust system, alternator and the water and fuel pumping system.
Fig 3: Comparing EV and ICE vehicle drive components

Source ( 'How Do Gasoline & Electric Vehicles Compare? ', 2015)
Electrical vehicle outplay internal combustion engine vehicles in areas like low maintenance cost cheap operation cost and its ability to eliminate environmental pollution common with ICE vehicles. Table one below show the difference between ICE vehicles and Electrical vehicles.
Table 1: Difference between gasoline and Electrical vehicle

Source ( 'How Do Gasoline & Electric Vehicles Compare? ', 2015)
Merits and Demerits of Electrical vehicles
Electrical vehicle is in some set up very convenient to operate. One key advantage of electrical vehicles is that they are electrically powered hence can be charged at home in any set-up. Electrical vehicle reduces emission of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by up to 98% hence reduced pollution that subsequently leads to less environmental negative impact. Unfortunately few disadvantages work against electric vehicles such as a limit in the distance it covers without battery failure, internal accessories easily drain the battery, and the car is more expensive with more weight due to heavy components ( 'How Do Gasoline & Electric Vehicles Compare? ', 2015).
Research methodology is a structured explanation of how the research is to be conducted and how the data relevant to the topic of the study will be collected (Welman, Kruger, Mitchell & Huysamen, 2005). The research is a hybrid of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The system will exploit both the primary and secondary techniques in data collection. Past journals related to the topic of the study will be used to narrow down the relevant literature. However, first-hand information will be taken from stakeholders such as Electric vehicle and Manufacturers of Electric vehicle. Therefore, face to face interviews, online interview, and structured questionnaire will be used to collect the required information.
` Electrical vehicle is a good concept for the future especially due to its ability to eliminate pollution through reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and the economic aspect through lowering the running and maintenance cost. Several strategies like the creation of common international standards, government involvement through enhancing smart meter and smart grid technology and develop of EV batteries that are easily charged and controlled by a better energy management system.